Hepatic Insulin Clearance in Regulation of Systemic Insulin Concentrations–Role of Carbohydrate and Energy Availability

Hyperinsulinemia is the hallmark of insulin resistance in obesity, and the relative importance of insulin clearance, insulin resistance, and insulin hypersecretion has been widely debated. On the basis of recent experimental evidence, we summarize existing evidence to suggest hepatic insulin clearance as a major and immediate regulator of systemic insulin concentrations responding within days to altered dietary energy and, in particular, carbohydrate intake. Hepatic insulin clearance seems to be closely associated with opposite alterations in hepatic lipid content and glucose production, providing a potential mechanistic link to hepatic insulin sensitivity. The molecular regulation of insulin clearance in the liver is likely to involve changes in insulin binding and receptor internalization in response to the dietary alterations, the molecular mechanisms of which await further research.

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